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Casey-Cannon, S., Hayward, C., & Gowen, C. (2001). Middle school girls’ reports of peer victimization: Concerns, consequences, and implications. A.S.C.A. Professional School Counseling, 5(2), 138-147.

Both boys and girls are victimized, but boys are more overtly victimized than girls. After conducting interviews with middle school girls, they discovered that social exclusion is one of the more powerful tools used by bullies. They also used physical force and lies to manipulate victims. Often if victims reported the interactions to teachers, they did not recieve much attention.