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Remafedi ,G., French, S., Story,M., Resnick, M.D., & Blum, R. (1998). The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation: Results of a population-based study. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 57–60.

The survey was administered to 36,254 students in grades 7 through 12 of Minnesota public schools. The Adolescent Health Survey contained 148

questions, which included five items pertaining to different dimensions of sexual orientation, consisting of sexual fantasy, sexual behaviors with males and females, attractions and intended behaviors, and sexual orientation self-identification. The last dimension was chosen for this study; in this question, students were asked to rate their sexual feelings on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 100% homosexual to 100% heterosexual or as unsure. The survey also included two questions pertaining to suicide risk. An original item inquired about any attempts to kill oneself in the past year or previously, and responses were coded as "ever" or "never." A second item from the Beck Depression Inventory asked about thoughts and wishes about suicide in the past month and intentions to carry them out.

Results: Bisexual/homosexual males and females had similarly high rates of reported suicide attempts and intent. Bisexual/homosexual males and females were more likely than heterosexual respondents of the same gender to report each dimension of suicidality. A bisexual/homosexual orientation in males was significantly associated with suicidal intent and suicide attempts.

Discussion: There is a need for prospective longitudinal studies to elucidate the evolving risk for both attempted and completed suicide across the lifespan of bisexual/homosexual persons. Results show that bisexuality/homosexuality is a risk factor for attempted suicide in male adolescents.