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Smith, P.K., Morita, Y., Junger-Tas, J., Olweus, D., Catalano, R., & Slee, P. (1999). The nature of school bullying: A cross-national perspective. Retrieved from

Bullying is often directed repeatedly towards a particular victim who is unable to defend himself or herself. The victim may be less strong or psychologically confident. The bully intends to inflict harm on the victim. Certain features are similar across different countries. For example, there are sex differences with boys reporting more physical bullying and girls reporting more relational bullying. The study of bullying dates back from the 1970s with the work of Dan Olweus in the Scandinavian countries. In the 1980s, there was interest in Japan with the concept of Ijime, a term similar to bullying. In the 1990s, interest in bullying has spread to Europe, Canada, and the U.S. The increase of young people who have completed suicide and media interest has generated research interest amongst many countries.

France: In an increasing number of schools school bullying offenses have increased and are often committed by younger people. In France, the concept of school bullying is different from the United States. The French term violence has a much wider scope; school bullying mainly refers to faits de violence. Violence is defined by the French Penal Code. School bullying includes all the different kinds of misuse of power (crimes and offenses against people or against personal or school property), all the kinds of violence of the school, and all minor but frequent kinds of incivilities which disturb classroom atmospheres (impoliteness, noise, disorder, etc.). From 1988 to 1992, France had increases in racketeering, intimidation to get money, or to get someone to do tasks for you. Girls are less likely to be bullies or victims. Interventions should focus on the training of school personnel to solve conflicts and negotiate and the cohesion of the staff to build up a positive school climate.